The Equator is an imaginary line passing through the center of the Earth. It divides Earth into two hemispheres- the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere. The latitude of the equator is 0 degrees. Going up or down the equator, the latitude value increases. There are 11 countries through which the equator passes.
11 countries through which the equator passes
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Republic of the Congo
- Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
South American countries through which the equator passes
Ecuador is a country on the west coast of South America. A small country bordering Colombia and Peru, Ecuador is known for its scenic Galapagos island, its rainforests, Andes mountains, and its biodiversity.
Colombia is a transcontinental country lying in both South America and North America. The contiguous larger landmass is located in South America, northeast of Ecuador. Colombia possesses great biodiversity and ranks among the most biologically diverse nations.
Brazil is the largest country in South America and the fifth-largest in the world. Another, biologically diverse equatorial country, Brazil is the country where the majority of the Amazon rainforest lies.
African countries through which the equator passes
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea. A typical equatorial nation, São Tomé and Príncipe has a total area of only about 1,000 square kilometers.
Located on the West coast of Africa, Gabon is a heavily forested country with over 85 % of its land covered with forests.
Republic of the Congo
Located east of Gabon is the Republic of the Congo. The northern region of the Republic of the Congo is heavily forested being on the equatorial line.
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the second-largest country in the whole of Africa. It is one of the 3 biologically megadiverse nations in Africa, the other 2 being Madagascar and South Africa.
Uganda is located east of DRC. A country with various lakes, Uganda enjoys mild pleasant temperatures all year round. The mild climate is mainly because of the country’s high average elevation.
Kenya is a country on the east coast of Africa. Despite being a tropical country, Kenya is mostly arid.
Somalia is the country with the largest coastline in Africa. Somalia has 2 climatic zones- a warm desert and a warm semi-arid.
Asian countries through which the equator passes
Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia. The country has over 17,000 islands. Most of Indonesia has an equatorial rainforest climate.
Tropic of cancer
The Tropic of Cancer is an imaginary line with a latitude value of 23.5 degrees N. It is also known as Northern Tropic.
Tropic of Capricorn
The Tropic of Capricorn is an imaginary line with a latitude value of 23.5 degrees S. It is also known as Southern Tropic.
The area between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn is known as the tropical zone or equatorial region. In the equatorial region, the climate is generally hot and humid for the entire year, unless there are local conditions affecting the climate like elevation. The equatorial region receives the most intensity of the Sun’s rays. As a result, there is more evaporation and more rainfall in the equatorial region. To understand the atmospheric circulation you can read this article.
Note: The equator also passes through the waters controlled by Maldives and Kiribati.